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e.g. pleural empyema following pneumococcal pneumonia, chronic osteomyelitis, serious renal infections, may also be assessed. The severe disease burden caused by resistant pathogens is highlighted by a recent study in Tanzania of outcomes of bloodstream infections in children (Blomberg et al. 2007). The incidence of bloodstream infections was 14% in 1,818 children < 7 years of age. One third (35%) of these children died, i.e. 44% of patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections, which were more than twice the mortality from malaria (Blomberg et al. 2007). Inappropriate treatment due to antimicrobial resistance was a significant risk factor for mortality (resistance rates to ampi-/amoxicillin in E. coli were around 90%, and those drugs were the most frequently prescribed) (Blomberg et al. 2007). This illustrates the grave consequences of antibiotic resistance to burden of disease in low-income countries. In many cases the reason for higher mortality may not be availability of cheap antibiotic drugs as those mentioned, but 1) the lack of knowledge on how drugs (i.e. more active drugs) should be used, 2) lack of economic abilities to acquire more active drugs 3) lack of microbiological services to determine the bacterial aetiology and its antibiotic resistance, or 4) lack of use of such facilities even if they are available. The ADMER project will build research capacity and disseminate knowledge to end-users on all these issues and thus provide the basis for meaningful interventions.